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从解题方法上全面突击雅思写作

来源::未知 | 作者:捕鱼游戏那个好玩-推荐个靠谱的捕鱼平台-安卓手机版下载** | 本文已影响

凡是关注雅思考试研究成果的考生都知道,中国考生雅思写作成绩的平均分是很低的,只有5.2左右,究竟是何原因,大家也耳熟能详,本系列文章将具体从各个方面给考生提供实在的例子,帮考生做到切实的提高。在上一系列中,我们为大家列举了雅思语言的一些特点,帮助考生详细分析了达到6分甚至更高的分数的要求标准并提供了相应的方法。
  其实,剖析雅思写作的评分标准,除了语言是一个非常重要的要求外,文章审题和结构的安排,以及段落的扩展也都是其评分范围所涵盖的。在接下来的系列中,将为大家列举近年的真题,从审题,结构安排这些方面统一讲解。希望考生在考试紧张的时间之内迅速构造分析出文章的结构,做到不离题偏题。这一系列,为大家介绍其中第一类方法 — 让步法。
  让步法
  I. 概念介绍
  经过笔者的整理,在近几年的雅思写作真题中,有一些题目可以将其归为一类,他们的明显特征是,题目中会出现形容词最高级,only等语气非常绝对的词汇,通常它的问题模式都是To what extent do you agree or disagree。过于绝对的命题显然是站不住脚的,但是又不是全部否定,所以针对这类题型,建议考生可以用让步法来解决此类题目。即正文分两或三段,在正文第一段先承认题目中的观点,再在后两段举一到两个反例。

  II. 例题示范
  我们通过一个真题来了解这种方法的使用。
  1.Individuals can do nothing to improve the environment. Only governments and large companies can make a difference. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
  拿到一个大作文题目,我们要先审题,找到题目中的关键词是“improve the environment”,而题目中也出现了我们提到的此类题目的标志性词汇“only”,结合对此类题目的方法分析,我们用让步法先在主体部分第一段同意上述观点(即政府和大公司能实现改善环境的),再提出反对意见(即个人也能发挥作用)。接着就轻松的得出正文的安排,前两段承认政府和公司对改善环境所作的贡献,正文第三段在肯定前两者的基础上提出反驳意见,除了政府和公司,人民在保护环境中也出了力。
  先看政府和大公司如何改善环境,政府为促进环境的改善,已经采取了很多的措施(adopt feasible measures),如严厉惩罚污染环境的人和机构,提倡使用环保袋,少用一次性产品(disposable products),另外大公司可以投入资金(investment)寻求探索新能源,彻底解决汽车尾气排放等污染问题。正文前两段结构安排如下:
  {原创范例} In an attempt to preserve the environment, the related departments have already settled down a range of effective regulations such as severe punishment, to promote the improvement of environment.
  Besides, with ample funds, the large corporations are qualified to exploit and create new products applying clean energies, thus eliminating the contaminations stemming from old energies.
  最后,提出个人在保护环境中也能起到关键作用(Perform an essential role in),从小事做起。请看下面结构安排:
  {原创范例} Apart from governments and companies, the individuals are well advised to endeavor to make contributions to this campaign, such as refusing to use disposable products.
  通过上述正文的论证,我们可以在结尾段得出结论,只有三方共同努力(make joint efforts),对于环境保护才能起促进作用。
   2.Housing shortage in big cities can cause severe social consequences. Some people think only government action can solve this problem. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  同样通过审题,我们可以对正文的结构做如下安排,先写一段让步段,承认题干的论点的合理性即“government action can combat this problem”,再举两个反例,即两段反对意见,除了政府政策外,人们对房子的观念(people’s awareness)以及一些房产公司的举措对解决这个问题都有决定性的作用(key determinant)。通过上述brainstorming, 我们可以写出全篇文章的框架:
  Introduction: As a growing number of people find their jobs in urban areas, the increasingly severe housing problem becomes the focus of public.
  →从原因着手,引出话题:城市住房短缺。
  Main body 1: It is granted that government action plays a pivotal role in combating housing shortage as a range of policies issued by government have alleviated the thorny problem, such as the construction of satellite towns around the city.
  →阐述第一个观点,即题干给出的观点,政府政策能有效缓解住房短缺。
  Main body 2: However, on no account can we lose sight of the essential part performed by individuals, a portion of whom are suggested to change their concept and attitude towards housing.
  →指出人们对房子的观念和态度需转换,这对解决问题也有促进作用。
  Main body 3: Besides, as key determinant, profit-oriented companies of real estate are advised to adopt effective steps, including building high-rise apartment, to use land economically in urban areas.
  →阐述一些房产公司的举措也能起缓解作用。
  Conclusion: Overall, the government, the housing-related companies, and the individuals as well all play a determinant role in resolving the housing shortage.
  → 三方共同作用,才能解决住房短缺的问题。
  III. 相似真题
  1. Environmental problem is too big for individual countries and individual person to address. In other words, we have reached the stage where the only way to protect the environment is at an international level. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
  2. Some people think motorized flight was the greatest invention in the 20th century and it has the biggest impact on our lives. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  3. Some people think stricter punishment for driving offenders is the only effective way to improve on the roads. To what extent do you agree or disagree?


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2011年雅思考试时间安排表

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